Secondly, there are general cabinet decisions on policy matters that the ministers are expected to relay through their departments in order to be implemented by the chief executive, such as cutting department spending White, Some commentators praised Carr’s appointment, describing him as a ‘professional’ Minister whose ‘long record of understanding international affairs’ would help to promote Australia’s international interests. Once selected as cabinet ministers, each minister is given a position as head of one of the government departments. The consequence will be that a new government will be formed or parliament will be dissolved and a general election will be called. For the government to be truly accountable to the people and Parliament the electoral and Parliamentary machinery must, of course, work effectively and democratically. While it is not strictly necessary for the model to be included in a constitution, doing so will increase accountability and transparency in the appointment process.

While publically denied by Rann, suggestions were made that de Crespigny might have obtained information to assist the bid from his role in the Executive Committee of Cabinet. This caused some confusion during the debates, with George Reid for example suggesting that some of his peers were ‘rather cloudy as to what responsible government is’. This model is more suited to the Australian context as it allows external Ministers to be accountable to Parliament while not actually requiring their appointment to that body. As a result, some degree of institutionalisation and formal written adoption is desirable. Stanley Waters in and Bert Brown in While the use of genuine casual vacancies has the potential to allow more external Ministers to be appointed at the federal level, it is a development that needs to be closely monitored to ensure it does not undermine the democratic ideals of Australian government.

In contrast, the Commonwealth Constitution is relatively inflexible, with only 8 of 44 referendums to change the Constitution succeeding sinceand none at all since Hacker then can be held responsible for his department responaibility not to blame.

However, it appears that this is more an accident of history than an essential feature of the concept. Further, a Law Officer must resign if the government loses the confidence of the Parliament.

(PDF) The Appointment of Ministers from Outside of Parliament | Alysia Blackham –

The relevant provisions are detailed in Table 4 below. While it is not strictly necessary for the model to be included in a constitution, doing so will increase accountability and transparency in the appointment process. Because cabinet collective responsibility forces the cabinet ministers to publicly agree with the prime minister’s decisions, political debate and internal discourse is hindered.


After the first general election no Minister of State shall hold office for a longer period than three calendar months unless he shall be or become a member of one of the Houses of The Parliament. Qld s 23, 43 members of Parliament. In reality, public servants in departments are expected to serve whatever party and minister is in control of government or departments without bias; this is due to the fact that public servants are not appointed to their position based on political influences but on professional merit Mulgan, In the UK and Canada, external Ministers may be appointed to the upper house of Parliament, thereby becoming subject to the same accountability mechanisms as other members of Parliament.

Despite the challenges associated with introducing a comprehensive model, it may still be possible to appoint external Ministers at the federal level. Ministers then hold office until a change of government or removal by the Governor on the Premier’s advice.

Parliamentary democracies such as Australia, the United Kingdom and Canada practice and adhere to cabinet collective responsibility.

Accountability and Collective Responsibility. Carr’s appointment reflects a growing international trend for external ministerial appointments.

research paper 04/82 the collective responsibility of ministers - an outline of the issues

First, it miniters not uncommon for successful politicians to come to politics in their later years, gaining necessary skills and experiences while no longer ‘young’. However, the nature of this relationship is taken to the extremes, Humphrey manipulates the minister through the advice he gives him, essentially placing Humphrey in control of the department.

(PDF) Accountability and Collective Responsibility | Sean Manning –

We also propose that the number of external Ministers be capped to ensure that they do not compromise Australia’s representative system of government. I will go further, and say this that if the words “responsible government” were adopted issuew our constitution, and the question of their meaning were referred to a bench of the ablest judges that could be ministdrs, they would end by declaring themselves utterly unable to define or to declare their meaning.

research paper 04/82 the collective responsibility of ministers - an outline of the issues

By creating a ‘fall-back position’ that avoided the constitutional limitations on external ministerial appointments, South Australian governance also became less accountable to the electorate. However, the delegates rarely turned their attention in any detail to the meaning of responsible government or what it would entail in an Australian federal state.


On occasion, this principle has been suspended; most notably in the s when in Britain the National Government allowed its Liberal members to oppose the introduction of protective tariffs ; and again when Harold Wilson allowed Cabinet members to campaign both for and against the referendum on whether the UK should remain in the European Economic Community.


Cabinet collective responsibility

Pre- appointment hearings could allow for resonsibility of the ministerial candidate and their suitability for the position and ensure parliamentary participation in the process of external appointments. If the hon member is in doubt that the system of government under which the machinery of this Bill will operate will be responsible government as we understand it, outtline doubt will be altogether removed by the requirement of the presence of Ministers in Parliament.

These changes allowed the removal of a chief executive and caused the position to be less secure. If nothing else, serving Senators are unlikely to fall on their sword to provide a vacancy for an incoming Minister.

Click here to sign up. The episode finishes with the realisation that the information leaked surrounding the over spending was orchestrated by the Prime Minister to put public pressure on the department to make cuts. These ‘failures’ were attributable in part to a lack of political and parliamentary skills.

It is distinct from party platforms and details the compromises that parties made in order to cooperate. Constitutional Role of the Attorney General The States and Territories that use an appointment process to fill casual vacancies, and thus where this approach might be an option, are New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and, in exceptional circumstances, the Legislative Assembly of the Australian Capital Territory.

research paper 04/82 the collective responsibility of ministers - an outline of the issues

The person likely to have the best understanding of these gaps is the Premier or Chief Minister. This became particularly pertinent when Cappo was embroiled in a ‘spending scandal’ in June related to his expenditure on travel.