Income cross-subsidisation was relatively well understood, with the majority of the population expressing their willingness and importance of the well off in society to subsidise contributions by the poorest groups. That means the rural members benefit less than the urban members though both of them contribute equally. Cross-sectional household survey data were double-entered into Visual FoxPro version 9. The study results showed that non-monetary factors such as distance economic costs act like prices in discouraging the demand. The World Health Report: Good business plan example.

Several other initiatives have been put forward to support progress towards UHC. Thus the findings presented in this paper have important policy implications regardless of this limitation. The 16 focus group discussions FGDs were conducted in 4 of the 6 villages in which the household survey had previously been conducted. Household perceptions and their implications for enrollment in the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana. Contributions were mainly paid annually All together, the Fund accepts a family size of six- 6 people Health Care Financing in Tanzania, We find this to be burdensome and we would like the CBHIs to cover all this….

Conclusion This study provides important information on community understanding and perceptions of health insurance. Purposive sampling was used to obtain respondents from each Village, whereby thirty respondents od were taken from each village.

Another person is better off and is able to pay the package that allows him or her go to more expensive hospitals.

literature review of nhif

literture This could be associated with the fact that solidarity was common in the community, with people often coming together to help relatives and neighbours in cases of large hospital bills or in the event of death. Dropout rates were mainly attributed to lack of funds to renew annual membership None of the CBHIs operating in the study setting had mechanisms to waive premiums for the poor or destitute in society.


Dissertation geopolitique

The services provided by NHIF are of compulsory for workers or not? Data were collected on self-reported illness, health care utilisation patterns, health care payments, knowledge of health insurance in general, the NHIF and preferred designs for a future NHIS.

Affordability of health insurance premiums was central in Ghana, where community members reported that liteerature premiums were too high and unaffordable to many [ 25 ]. Are they considered as valuable or not?

For NHIF to meet its objectives, and its members to literqture equal opportunities as those in urban areas, indeed, NHIF have to improve the quality of its services to meet its objectives as well as the expectations of its rural members. The operations of the Scheme are guided by the Law and regulations which provide for the procedures on membership, collection of contributions and provision of benefits.

literature review of nhif

Rural In general, a rural area is a geographic area that is located outside cities and towns. The two tables below shows the clarification of the above quality and services rendered by NHIF and Rural Members as well as the respondent awareness.

The assumption of certainty is a major shortfall since it is hard to calculate the marginal rate of return in terms of extra healthy days bhif marginal cost in terms of extra expenditure on kiterature care. Relationship between education level and sex of respondents Table 6: Not being able to pay in instalments was another reason given that made it difficult for people to join CBHIs. Affordability of premiums was expressed as a major challenge to health insurance membership.

Affordability of health insurance premiums was central in Ghana, where community members reported that the premiums were too high and unaffordable to many [ 25 ].

So an employed person may find it easier to join. The two districts were chosen because they have a long history of CBHIs, covering aroundpeople and their dependants.


Poor service provision was exemplified by lack of laboratory equipment and x-ray machines, long waiting times, corruption and conflict of lteratureand discrimination of patients according to scheme membership or perceived socioeconomic status.

Two villages were dropped due to security concerns. Marital status a Married b Single 5. Negative perceptions impact reciew trust in the public health system and hinder progress towards universal health coverage. Some of the sources include; NHIF documentary books, pamphlets, other individual researches, published materials, journals, different internet sources and websites. In Ghana, dropouts of the national health insurance scheme gave poor experiences with the public health system as a major factor that contributed to their decisions of not renewing their membership [ 24 ].

Dissertation geopolitique

This group as well represented the dependant members of NHIF from the employed members. Research findings, 4. Questionnaires were administered to household heads litsrature their spouses, and in their absence, another senior household member. Private purchasing institutions were hardly preferred Survey households were selected through two stages.

If the offices were near here say Karatina [nearer town] a person can even walk to the offices to make payment or for other services.

literature review of nhif

Nonetheless, there was a general agreement that premiums should not be set too low, to an extent that they undermine provision of quality services. Under such an arrangement, the CBHI cover is used to meet the costs of services that are not covered through the NHIF, for example surgery in faith based facilities and the costs of buying prescribed medicines and other essential supplies when these are not available in revuew health facilities.